Timeline of psychology | Wikipedia audio article

Timeline of psychology | Wikipedia audio article

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This article is a general timeline of psychology.==Ancient history – BCE==
c. 1550 BCE – The Ebers Papyrus mentioned depression and thought disorders.
c. 600 BCE – Many cities in Greece had temples to Asklepios that provided cures for psychosomatic
illnesses. 540–475 Heraclitus
c. 500 Alcmaeon – suggested theory of humors as regulating human behavior (similar to Empedocles’
elements) 500–428 Anaxagoras
490–430 Empedocles proposed a first natural, non religious system of factors that create
things around, including human characters. In his model he used four elements (water,
fire, earth, air) and four seasons to derive diversity of natural systems.
490–421 Protagoras 470–399 Socrates – Socrates has been called
the father of western philosophy, if only via his influence on Plato and Aristotle.
Socrates made a major contribution to pedagogy via his dialectical method and to epistemology
via his definition of true knowledge as true belief buttressed by some rational justification.
470–370 Democritus – Democritus distinguished between insufficient knowledge gained through
the senses and legitimate knowledge gained through the intellect—an early stance on
epistemology. 460 BC – 370 BCE – Hippocrates introduced
principles of scientific medicine based upon naturalistic observation and logic, and denied
the influence of spirits and demons in diseases. Introduced the concept of “temperamentum”(“mixture”,
i.e. 4 temperament types based on a ratio between chemical bodily systems. Hippocrates
was among the first physicians to argue that brain, and not the heart is the organ of psychic
processes. 387 BCE – Plato suggested that the brain
is the seat of mental processes. Plato’s view of the “soul” (self) is that the body exists
to serve the soul: “God created the soul before the body and gave it precedence both in time
and value, and made it the dominating and controlling partner.” from Timaeus
c. 350 BCE – Aristotle wrote on the psuchê (soul) in De Anima, first mentioning the tabula
rasa concept of the mind. c. 340 BCE – Praxagoras
371–288 Theophrastus 341–270 Epicurus
c. 320 Herophilus c. 300–30 Zeno of Citium taught the philosophy
of Stoicism, involving logic and ethics. In logic, he distinguished between imperfect
knowledge offered by the senses and superior knowledge offered by reason. In ethics, he
taught that virtue lay in reason and vice in rejection of reason. Stoicism inspired
Aaron Beck to introduce cognitive behavioral therapy in the 1970s.
304–250 Erasistratus 123–43 BCE – Themison of Laodicea was
a pupil of Asclepiades of Bithynia and founded a school of medical thought known as “methodism.”
He was criticized by Soranus for his cruel handling of mental patients. Among his prescriptions
were darkness, restraint by chains, and deprivation of food and drink. Juvenal satirized him and
suggested that he killed more patients than he cured.
c. 100 BCE – The Dead Sea Scrolls noted the division of human nature into two temperaments.==First century==
c. 50 – Aulus Cornelius Celsus died, leaving De Medicina, a medical encyclopedia; Book
3 covers mental diseases. The term insania, insanity, was first used by him. The methods
of treatment included bleeding, frightening the patient, emetics, enemas, total darkness,
and decoctions of poppy or henbane, and pleasant ones such as music therapy, travel, sport,
reading aloud, and massage. He was aware of the importance of the doctor-patient relationship.
c. 100 – Rufus of Ephesus believed that the nervous system was instrumental in voluntary
movement and sensation. He discovered the optic chiasma by anatomical studies of the
brain. He stressed taking a history of both physical and mental disorders. He gave a detailed
account of melancholia, and was quoted by Galen.
93-138 – Soranus of Ephesus advised kind treatment in healthy and comfortable conditions,
including light, warm rooms.==Second century==
c. 130–200 – Galen “was schooled in all the psychological systems of the day: Platonic,
Aristotelian, Stoic, and Epicurean” He advanced medicine by offering anatomic investigations
and was a skilled physician. Galen developed further the theory of temperaments suggested
by Hippocrates, that people’s characters were determined by the balance among four bodily
substances. He also distinguished sensory from motor nerves and showed that the brain
controls the muscles. c. 150–200 – Aretaeus of Cappadocia==Third century==
155–220 Tertullian 205–270 Plotinus wrote Enneads a systematic
account of Neoplatonist philosophy, also nature of visual perception and how memory might
work.==Fourth century==
c. 323–403 – Oribasius compiled medical writings based on the works of Aristotle,
Asclepiades, and Soranus of Ephesus, and wrote on melancholia in Galenic terms.
345–399 – Evagrius Ponticus described a rigorous way of introspection within the early
Christian monastic tradition. Through introspection, monks could acquire self-knowledge and control
their stream of thought which signified potentially demonic influences. Ponticus developed this
view in Praktikos, his guide to ascetic life. c. 390 – Nemesius wrote De Natura Hominis
(On Human Nature); large sections were incorporated in Saint John Damascene’s De Fide Orthodoxia
in the eighth century. Nemesius’ book De Placitis Hippocratis et Platonis (On the Doctrines
of Hippocrates and Plato) contains many passages concerning Galen’s anatomy and physiology,
believing that different cavities of the brain were responsible for different functions.
397–398 – St. Augustine of Hippo published Confessions, which anticipated Freud by near-discovery
of the subconscious. Augustine’s most complete account of the soul is in De Quantitate Animae
(The Greatness of the Soul). The work assumes a Platonic model of the soul.==Fifth century==
5th century – Caelius Aurelianus opposed harsh methods of handling the insane, and
advocated humane treatment. c. 423–529 – Theodosius the Cenobiarch
founded a monastery at Kathismus, near Bethlehem. Three hospitals were built by the side of
the monastery: one for the sick, one for the aged, and one for the insane.
c. 451 – Patriarch Nestorius of Constantinople: his followers dedicated themselves to the
sick and became physicians of great repute. They brought the works of Hippocrates, Aristotle,
and Galen, and influenced the approach to physical and mental disorders in Persia and
Arabia==
Seventh century==625–690 – Paul of Aegina suggested that
hysteria should be treated by ligature of the limbs, and mania by tying the patient
to a mattress placed inside a wicker basket and suspended from the ceiling. He also recommended
baths, wine, special diets, and sedatives for the mentally ill. He described the following
mental disorders: phrenitis, delirium, lethargus, melancholia, mania, incubus, lycanthropy,
and epilepsy==Ninth century==
c. 800 – The first bimaristan was built in Baghdad. By the 13th century, bimaristans
grew into hospitals with specialized wards, including wards for mentally ill patients.
c. 850 – Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari wrote a work emphasizing the need for psychotherapy.==Tenth century==
c. 900 – Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi urged doctors to ensure that they evaluated the
state of both their patients’ bodies and souls, and highlighted the link between spiritual
or mental health and overall health. c. 900 – al-Razi (Rhazes) promoted psychotherapy
and an understanding attitude towards those suffering from psychological distress.==Eleventh century==
1025 – In The Canon of Medicine, Avicenna described a number of conditions, including
hallucination, insomnia, mania, nightmare, melancholia, dementia, epilepsy, paralysis,
stroke, vertigo and tremor. c. 1030 – Al-Biruni employed an experimental
method in examining the concept of reaction time.==Twelfth century==
c. 1200 – Maimonides wrote about neuropsychiatric disorders, and described rabies and belladonna
intoxication.==Thirteenth century==
c. 1180 – 1245 Alexander of Hales c. 1190 – 1249 William of Auvergne
1215–1277 Peter Juliani taught in the medical faculty of the University of Siena, and wrote
on medical, philosophical and psychological topics. He was personal physician to Pope
Gregory X and later became archbishop and cardinal. He was elected pope under the name
John XXI in 1276. c. 1214 – 1294 Roger Bacon advocated for
empirical methods and wrote on optics, visual perception, and linguistics.
1221–1274 Bonaventure 1193–1280 Albertus Magnus
1225 – Thomas Aquinas 1240 – Bartholomeus Anglicus published De
Proprietatibus Rerum, which included a dissertation on the brain, recognizing that mental disorders
can have a physical or psychological cause. 1247 – Bethlehem Royal Hospital in Bishopsgate
outside the wall of London, one of the most famous old psychiatric hospitals was founded
as a priory of the Order of St. Mary of Bethlem to collect alms for Crusaders; after the English
government secularized it, it started admitting mental patients by 1377 (c. 1403), becoming
known as Bedlam Hospital; in 1547 it was acquired by the City of London, operating until 1948;
it is now part of the British NHS Foundation Trust.
1266–1308 Duns Scotus c. 1270 – Witelo wrote Perspectiva, a work
on optics containing speculations on psychology, nearly discovering the subconscious.
1295 Lanfranc writes Science of Cirurgie==
Fourteenth century==1317–40 – William of Ockham, an English
Franciscan friar and scholastic philosopher and theologian, is commonly known for Occam’s
razor, the methodological principle that the simplest explanation is to be preferred. He
also produced significant works on logic, physics, and theology, advancing his thoughts
about intuitive and abstracted knowledge. 1347-50 – The Black Death devastated Europe.
c. 1375 – English authorities regarded mental illness as demonic possession, treating it
with exorcism and torture.==Fifteenth century==
c. 1400 – Renaissance Humanism caused a reawakening of ancient knowledge of science
and medicine. 1433–1499 Marsilio Ficino was a renowned
figure of the Italian Renaissance, a Neoplatonist humanist, a translator of Greek philosophical
writing, and the most influential exponent of Platonism in Italy in the fifteenth century.
c. 1450 – The pendulum in Europe swings, bringing witch mania, causing thousands of
women to be executed for witchcraft until the late 17th century.==Sixteenth century==
1590 – Scholastic philosopher Rudolph Goclenius coined the term “psychology”; though usually
regarded as the origin of the term, there is evidence that it was used at least six
decades earlier by Marko Marulić.==Seventeenth century==
c. 1600–1625 – Francis Bacon was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, lawyer,
jurist, author, and pioneer of the scientific method. His writings on psychological topics
included the nature of knowledge and memory. 1650 – René Descartes died, leaving Treatise
of the World, containing his dualistic theory of reality, mind vs. matter.
1672 – Thomas Willis published the anatomical treatise De Anima Brutorum, describing psychology
in terms of brain function. 1677 – Baruch Spinoza died, leaving Ethics,
Demonstrated in Geometrical Order, Pt. 2 focusing on the human mind and body, disputing Descartes
and arguing that they are one, and Pt. 3 attempting to show that moral concepts such as good and
evil, virtue, and perfection have a basis in human psychology.
1689 – John Locke published An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, which claims that the
human mind is a Tabula Rasa at birth.==Eighteenth century==
1701 – Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz published the Law of Continuity, which he applied to
psychology, becoming the first to postulate an unconscious mind; he also introduced the
concept of threshold. 1710 – George Berkeley published Treatise
Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge, which claims that the outside world is composed
solely of ideas. 1732 – Christian Wolff published Psychologia
Empirica, followed in 1734 by Psychologia Rationalis, popularizing the term “psychology”.
1739 – David Hume published A Treatise of Human Nature, claiming that all contents of
mind are solely built from sense experiences. 1781 – Immanuel Kant published Critique
of Pure Reason, rejecting Hume’s extreme empiricism and proposing that there is more to knowledge
than bare sense experience, distinguishing between “a posteriori” and “a priori” knowledge,
the former being derived from perception, hence occurring after perception, and the
latter being a property of thought, independent of experience and existing before experience.
1783 – Ferdinand Ueberwasser designated himself Professor of Empirical Psychology and Logic
at the Old University of Münster; four years later, he published the comprehensive textbook
Instructions for the regular study of empirical psychology for candidates of philosophy at
the University of Münster which complemented his lectures on scientific psychology.
1798 – Immanuel Kant proposed the first dimensional model of consistent individual differences
by mapping the four Hippocrates’ temperament types into dimensions of emotionality and
energetic arousal. These two dimensions later became an essential part of all temperament
and personality models.==Nineteenth century=====1800s===
c. 1800 – Franz Joseph Gall developed cranioscopy, the measurement of the skull to determine
psychological characteristics, which was later renamed phrenology; it is now discredited.
1807 – Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel published Phenomenology of Spirit (Mind), which describes
his thesis-antithesis-synthesis dialectical method, according to which knowledge pushes
forwards to greater certainty, and ultimately towards knowledge of the noumenal world.
1808 – Johann Christian Reil coined the term “psychiatry”.===1810s===
1812 – Benjamin Rush became one of the earliest advocates of humane treatment for the mentally
ill with the publication of Medical Inquiries and Observations Upon Diseases of the Mind,
the first American textbook on psychiatry.===1820s===
1829 – John Stuart Mill’s father James Mill published Analysis of the Phenomena of the
Human Mind (2 vols.).===1840s===
1840 – Frederick Augustus Rauch (1806–1841) published Psychology, or a View of the Human
Soul, including Anthropology 1843 – Forbes Benignus Winslow (1810–1874)
published The Plea of Insanity in Criminal Cases, helping establish the plea of insanity
in criminal cases in Britain. 1844 – [[Søren Kierkegaaed The Concept
of Anxiety, the first exposition on anxiety. 1848 – Vermont railroad worker Phineas Gage
had a 3-foot rod driven through his brain and jaw in an explosives accident, permanently
changing his personality, revolutionizing scientific opinion about brain functions being
localizable. 1849 – Søren Kierkegaard published The
Sickness Unto Death.===1850s===
1852 – Hermann Lotze published Medical Psychology or Physiology of the Soul.
1856 – Hermann Lotze began publishing his 3-volume magnum opus Mikrokosmos (1856–64),
arguing that natural laws of inanimate objects apply to human minds and bodies but have the
function of enabling us to aim for the values set by the deity, thus making room for aesthetics.
1859 – Pierre Briquet published Traite Clinique et Therapeutique de L’Hysterie.===1860s===
1860s – Franciscus Donders first used human reaction time to infer differences in cognitive
processing. 1860 – Gustav Theodor Fechner published
Elements of Psychophysics, founding the subject of psychophysics.
1861 – Paul Broca discovered an area in the left cerebral hemisphere that is important
for speech production, now known as Broca’s area, founding neuropsychology.
1869 – Francis Galton published Hereditary Genius, arguing for eugenics. He went on to
found psychometrics, differential psychology, and the lexical hypothesis of personality.===1870s===
1872 – Douglas Spalding published his discovery of psychological imprinting.
1874 – Wilhelm Wundt published Grundzüge der physiologischen Psychologie (Principles
of Physiological Psychology), the first textbook of experimental psychology.
1878 – G. Stanley Hall was awarded the first PhD on a psychological topic from Harvard
(in philosophy). 1879 – Wilhelm Wundt opened the first experimental
psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig in Germany.===1880s===
1882 – The Society for Psychical Research was founded in England.
1883 – G. Stanley Hall opened the first American experimental psychology research
laboratory at Johns Hopkins University. 1883 – Emil Kraepelin published Compendium
der Psychiatrie. 1884 – Ivan Pavlov began studying the digestive
secretion of animals. 1884 – Tourette’s Syndrome was first described.
1885 – Hermann Ebbinghaus published Über das Gedächtnis (On Memory), a groundbreaking
work based on self-experiments, first describing the learning curve, forgetting curve, and
spacing effect. 1886 – John Dewey published the first American
textbook on psychology, titled Psychology. 1886 – Vladimir Bekhterev established the
first laboratory of experimental psychology in Russia at Kazan University.
1886 – Sigmund Freud began private practice in Vienna.
1887 – Georg Elias Müller opened the 2nd German experimental psychology research laboratory
in Göttingen. 1887 – George Trumbull Ladd (Yale) published
Elements of Physiological Psychology, the first American textbook to include a substantial
amount of information on the new experimental form of the discipline.
1887 – James McKeen Cattell founded an experimental psychology laboratory at the University of
Pennsylvania, the 3rd in the United States. 1887 – G. Stanley Hall founded the American
Journal of Psychology with a $500 contribution supplied by Robert Pearsall Smith of the American
Society for Psychical Research. 1888 – William Lowe Bryan founded the United
States’ 4th experimental psychology laboratory at Indiana University.
1888 – Joseph Jastrow founded the United States’ 5th experimental psychology laboratory
at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. 1888 – G. Stanley Hall left Johns Hopkins
for the presidency of the newly founded Clark University in Worcester, Mass.
1889 – James Mark Baldwin published the first volume of his Handbook of Psychology,
titled “Sense and Intellect”. 1889 – Edmund Sanford, a former student
of G. Stanley Hall founded the United States’ 6th experimental psychology laboratory at
Clark University. 1889 – Edward Cowles founded the United
States’ 7th experimental psychology laboratory at the McLean Asylum in Waverley, Mass.
1889 – Harry Kirke Wolfe founded the United States’ 8th experimental psychology laboratory
at the University of Nebraska.===1890s===
1890 – Christian von Ehrenfels published On the Qualities of Form, founding Gestalt
psychology. 1890 – William James published The Principles
of Psychology. 1890 – James Hayden Tufts founded the United
States’ 9th experimental psychology laboratory at the University of Michigan.
1890 – G. T. W. Patrick founded the United States’ 10th experimental psychology laboratory
at the University of Iowa. 1890 – James McKeen Cattell left Pennsylvania
for Columbia University where he founded the United States’ 11th experimental psychology
laboratory. 1890 – James Mark Baldwin founded the first
permanent experimental psychology laboratory in the British Empire at the University of
Toronto. 1891 – Frank Angell founded the United States’
12th experimental psychology laboratory at the Cornell University.
1891 – Edvard Westermarck described the Westermarck effect, where people raised early
in life in close domestic proximity later become desensitized to close sexual attraction,
raising theories about the incest taboo. 1892 – G. Stanley Hall et al. founded the
American Psychological Association (APA). 1892 – Edward Bradford Titchener took a
professorship at Cornell University, replacing Frank Angell who left for Stanford University.
1892 – Edward Wheeler Scripture founded the experimental psychology laboratory at
Yale University, the 19th in United States. 1892–1893 – Charles A. Strong opened the
experimental psychology laboratory at the University of Chicago, the 20th in the United
States, at which James Rowland Angell conducted the first experiments of functionalism in
1896. 1894 – Margaret Floy Washburn was the first
woman to be granted a Ph.D. in Psychology after she studied under E. B. Titchener at
Cornell University. 1894 – James McKeen Cattell and James Mark
Baldwin founded the Psychological Review to compete with Hall’s American Journal of Psychology.
1895 – Gustave Le Bon published The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind.
1896 – John Dewey published the paper The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology, founding
social behaviorism. 1896 – The first psychological clinic was
opened at the University of Pennsylvania by Lightner Witmer; although often celebrated
as marking the birth of clinical psychology, it was focused primarily on educational matters.
1896 – Edward B. Titchener, student of Wilhelm Wundt and originator of the terms “structuralism”
and “functionalism” published An Outline of Psychology.
1897 – Havelock Ellis published Sexual Inversion. 1898 – Boris Sidis published The Psychology
of Suggestion: A Research into the Subconscious Nature of Man and Society.
1899 – On 4 November Sigmund Freud published The Interpretation of Dreams (Die Traumdeutung),
marking the beginning of psychoanalysis, which attempts to deal with the Oedipal complex.==Twentieth century=====1900s===
1901 – Sigmund Freud published The Psychopathology of Everyday Life.
1903 – John B. Watson graduated from the University of Chicago; his dissertation on
rat behavior has been described as a “classic of developmental psychobiology” by historian
of psychology Donald Dewsbury. 1903 – Helen Thompson Woolley published
her doctoral dissertation, The Mental Traits of Sex, for which she had conducted the first
experimental test of sex differences. 1904 – Ivan Pavlov won the Nobel Prize for
his studies of conditioning. This was the first Prize given for research adopted by
psychologists. 1904 – Charles Spearman published the article
General Intelligence in the American Journal of Psychology, introducing the g factor theory
of intelligence. 1905 – Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon created
the Binet-Simon scale to identify students needing extra help, marking the beginning
of standardized psychological testing. 1905 – Edward Thorndike published the law
of effect. 1905 – Sigmund Freud published Three Essays
on the Theory of Sexuality. 1906 – The Journal of Abnormal Psychology
was founded by Morton Prince, for which Boris Sidis was an associate editor and significant
contributor. 1908 – Sigmund Freud published the paper
On the Sexual Theories of Children, introducing the concept of penis envy; he also published
the paper ‘Civilized’ Sexual Morality and Modern Nervous Illness.
1908 – Wilfred Trotter published the first paper explaining the herd instinct.
1909 – Sigmund Freud lectured at Clark University, winning over the U.S. establishment.===1910s===
1910 – Sigmund Freud founded the International Psychoanalytical Association (IPA), with Carl
Jung as the first president, and Otto Rank as the first secretary.
1910 – Grace Helen Kent and J. Rosanoff published the Kent-Rosanoff Free Association
Test 1910 – Boris Sidis opened the private Sidis
Psychotherapeutic Institute at Maplewood Farms in Portsmouth, New Hampshire for the treatment
of nervous patients using the latest scientific methods.
1911 – Alfred Adler left Freud’s Psychoanalytic Group to form his own school of thought, accusing
Freud of overemphasizing sexuality and basing his theory on his own childhood.
1911 – The American Psychoanalytic Association (APsaA) was founded.
1911 – William McDougall, founder of Hormic Psychology published Body and Mind: A History
and Defence of Animism, claiming that there is an animating principle in Nature and that
the mind guides evolution. 1912 – Max Wertheimer published Experimental
Studies of the Perception of Movement, helping found Gestalt Psychology
1913 – Carl Jung developed his own theories, which became known as Analytical Psychology.
1913 – Jacob L. Moreno pioneered group psychotherapy methods in Vienna, which emphasized spontaneity
and interaction; they later became known as psychodrama and sociometry.
1913 – John B. Watson published Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It, sometimes known
as “The Behaviorist Manifesto”. 1913 – Hugo Münsterberg published Psychology
and Industrial Efficiency, considered today as the first book on Industrial and Organizational
Psychology. 1914 – Boris Sidis published The Foundations
of Normal and Abnormal Psychology, where he provided the scientific foundation for the
field of psychology, and detailed his theory of the moment consciousness.
1917 – Sigmund Freud published Introduction to Psychoanalysis.===1920s===
1920 – John B. Watson and his assistant Rosalie Rayner conducted the Little Albert
experiment, using classical conditioning to make a young boy afraid of white rats.
1921 – Sigmund Freud published Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego.
1921 – Jacob L. Moreno conducted the first large scale public psychodrama session at
the Komedienhaus in Vienna; he moved to New York in 1925.
1921 – Melanie Klein began to develop her technique of analyzing children.
1922 – Karen Horney began publishing a series of 14 papers (last in 1937) questioning Freud’s
theories on women, founding feminist psychology. 1922 – Boris Sidis published Nervous Ills:
Their Cause and a Cure, a popularization of his work concerning the subconscious and the
treatment of psychopathic disease. 1923 – Sigmund Freud published The Ego and
the Id. 1924 – Jacob Robert Kantor founded interbehavioral
psychology based on John Dewey’s psychology and Albert Einstein’s relativity theory.
1924 – Otto Rank published The Trauma of Birth, coining the term “pre-Oedipal”, causing
Freud to break with him. 1926 – Otto Rank gave the lecture “The Genesis
of the Object Relation”, founding object relations theory.
1927 – Ivan Pavlov published Conditioned Reflexes, containing his theory of classical
conditioning. 1928 – Jean Piaget published Judgment and
Reasoning in the Child. 1928 – [Shoma Morita] published Morita Therapy:
The True Nature of Shinkeishitsu (Anxiety-based Disorders), which contains his peripheral
theory of consciousness, while noting Freud’s theory of the unconscious. (Translation by
A. Kondo, Edited by P. LeVine in 1998, SUNY Press)
1929 – Edwin Boring published A History of Experimental Psychology, pioneering the
history of psychology. 1929 – Lev Vygotsky founded cultural-historical
psychology.===1930s===
1930 – Edwin Boring discussed the Boring figure.
1931 – Gordon Allport et al. published the Allport-Vernon-Lindzey Study of Values, which
defines six major value types. 1932 – Journal of Personality founded as
first personality psychology research periodical originally titled Character and Personality.
1933 – Pyotr Gannushkin published Manifestations of Psychopathies.
1933 – Clark L. Hull published Hypnosis and Suggestibility, proving that hypnosis
is not sleep and founding the modern study of hypnosis.
1933 – Wilhelm Reich published Character Analysis and The Mass Psychology of Fascism.
1934 – Lev Vygotsky published Thought and Language (Thinking and Speech).
1934 – Ruth Winifred Howard became the first African American woman to earn a PhD in psychology.
1935 – John Ridley Stroop developed a color-word task to demonstrate the interference of attention,
the Stroop effect 1935 – Helen Flanders Dunbar published Emotions
and Bodily Changes: A Survey of Literature on Psychosomatic Interrelationships; in 1942
she founded the American Psychosomatic Society (American Society for Research in Psychosomatic
Problems), and was the first editor of the society’s journal Psychosomatic Medicine:
Experimental and Clinical Studies, founded in 1939.
1935 – Henry Murray and Christiana Morgan of Harvard University published the Thematic
Apperception Test (TAT). 1935 – Theodore Newcomb began the Bennington
College Study, which ended in 1939, documenting liberalization of women students’ political
beliefs, along with the effects of proximity on acquaintance and attraction.
1936 – Kurt Lewin published Principles of Topological Psychology, containing Lewin’s
Equation B=f (P, E), meaning that behavior is a function of a person in their environment.
1936 – Wilhelm Reich published The Sexual Revolution.
1936 – Kenneth Spence published an analysis of discrimination learning in terms of gradients
of excitation and inhibition, showing that mathematical deductions from a quantitative
theory could generate interesting and empirically testable predictions.
1936 – The Psychometric Society was founded by Louis Leon Thurstone, who proposed dividing
general intelligence into seven primary mental abilities (PMAs).
1938 – B.F. Skinner published his first major work The Behavior of Organisms: An Experimental
Analysis, introducing behavior analysis. 1939 – Alan Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley published
a classic report in the journal Nature of the first recording of an action potential.
1939 – Neal E. Miller et al. published the frustration-aggression theory, which claims
that aggression is the result of frustration of efforts to attain a goal.
1939 – David Wechsler developed the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale.
1939 – On 1 September World War II began with the German invasion of Poland; on 20
September Adolf Hitler signed the Euthanasia Decree, written by psychologist Max de Crinis,
resulting in the Aktion T4 euthanasia program; on 23 September Sigmund Freud committed physician-assisted
suicide in London on the Jewish Day of Atonement; on 31 October his archrival Otto Rank died
of a kidney infection in New York City after uttering the word “comical”; Wilhelm Reich
fled to New York, coining the word orgone and building “orgone accumulators”, which
got him in trouble with the psychiatric establishment and the federal government.===1940s===
1940 – Edwin Boring discussed the moon illusion. 1941 – Erich Fromm published Escape from
Freedom, founding political psychology. 1941 – B.F. Skinner and William Kaye Estes
introduced the conditioned emotional response (CER)/conditioned fear response (CFR) paradigm
via electric shocks given to rats. 1942 – Ludwig Binswanger founded existential
therapy. 1942 – Carl Rogers published Counseling
and Psychotherapy, suggesting that respect and a nonjudgmental approach to therapy is
the foundation for effective treatment of mental health issues.
1943 – J. P. Guilford developed the Stanine (Standard Nine) test for the U.S. Air Force
to evaluate pilots. 1943 – Clark L. Hull published Principles
of Behavior, establishing animal-based learning and conditioning as the dominant learning
theory. 1943 – Leo Kanner published Autistic Disturbances
of Affective Contact, the first systematic description of autistic children.
1943 – Abraham Maslow published the paper A Theory of Human Motivation, describing Maslow’s
hierarchy of needs. 1944 – Zach Andrew and Cameron Peter published
Myer’s Psychology Second Edition where they revolutionized the approach of learned Psychology
1945 – The Journal of Clinical Psychology was founded.
1946 – Kurt Lewin founded action research. 1946 – Stanley Smith Stevens published his
levels of measurement theory. 1947 – Jerome Bruner published Value and
Need as Organizing Factors in Perception, founding New Look Psychology, which challenges
psychologists to study not just an organism’s response to a stimulus but also its internal
interpretation. 1947 – Kurt Lewin coined the term “group
dynamics”. 1947 Nikolai Bernstein summarized his research
on the measurement of actions using his original devices that became a beginning of a new discipline
of kinesiology 1948 – Alfred Kinsey of Indiana University
published Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. 1949 – The Boulder Conference outlined the
scientist-practitioner model of clinical psychology. 1949 – Donald Hebb published The Organization
of Behavior: A Neuropsychological Theory, in which he provided a detailed, testable
theory of how the brain could support cognitive processes, revolutionizing neuropsychology
and making McGill University a center of research. 1949 – David Wechsler published the Wechsler
Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC).===1950s===
1950 – Karen Horney summarized her ideas in her magnum opus Neurosis and Human Growth:
The Struggle Toward Self-Realization. 1950 – Erik Erikson published Childhood
and Society, in which he introduced his theory on the stages of psycho-social development
and the concept of an identity crisis. 1950 – Rollo May published The Meaning of
Anxiety. 1951 – Solomon Asch published the Asch conformity
experiments, demonstrating the power of conformity in groups.
1951 – Morton Deutsch published Interracial Housing: A Psychological Evaluation of a Social
Experiment, producing scientific evidence of the bad effects of segregated housing,
helping to end it in the U.S. 1951 – Carl Rogers published his magnum
opus Client-Centered Therapy. 1951 – Lee Cronbach published his measure
of reliability, now known as Cronbach’s alpha. 1952 – The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
of Mental Disorders (DSM) was published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA),
marking the beginning of modern mental illness classification; it was revised in 1968, 1980/7,
1994, 2000 and 2013. 1952 – Hans Eysenck started a debate on
psychotherapy with his critical review, claiming that psychotherapy had no documented effect,
and psychoanalysis had negative effects. 1953 – Alfred Kinsey published Sexual Behavior
in the Human Female. 1953 – Nathaniel Kleitman of the U. of Chicago
discovered rapid eye movement sleep (REM), founding modern sleep research.
1953 – David McClelland proposed need theory. 1953 – B.F. Skinner outlined behavioral
therapy, lending support for behavioral psychology via research in the literature.
1953 – The Code of Ethics for Psychologists was developed by the American Psychological
Association (APA). 1953 – Harry Stack Sullivan published The
Interpersonal Theory of Psychiatry, which holds that an individual’s personality is
formed by relationships. 1954 – Abraham Maslow helped to found humanistic
psychology, later developing Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
1954 – Paul E. Meehl published a paper claiming that mechanical (formal algorithmic) methods
of data combination outperform clinical (subjective informal) methods when used to arrive at a
prediction of behavior. 1954 – James Olds and Peter Milner of McGill
University discovered the brain reward system, involving the brain’s pleasure center.
1954 – Julian Rotter published Social Learning and Clinical Psychology, founding social learning
theory. 1954 – Herman Witkin published Personality
Through Perception, which claims that personality can be revealed through differences in how
people perceive their environment; he went on to develop the Rod and Frame Test (RFT).
1955 – Lee Cronbach published Construct Validity in Psychological Tests, popularizing
the concept of construct validity. 1955 – J. P. Guilford developed the Structure
of Intellect (SOI) theory, which divides human intelligence into 150 abilities along three
dimensions, operations, content, and products; it is discredited by the 1990s.
1955 – George Kelly founded personal construct psychology.
1956 – George Armitage Miller published the paper The Magical Number Seven, Plus or
Minus Two, in which he showed that there is a limit on the amount of information that
can be memorized at one time. 1956 – Rollo May published Existence, promoting
existential psychology. 1957 – Leon Festinger published his theory
of cognitive dissonance. 1957 – Stanley Smith Stevens published Stevens’
power law. 1957 – Eric Berne developed Transactional
analysis (TA), in which psychiatry patients can be treated for emotional distresses by
analyzing and altering their social transactions. 1958 – John Cohen published Humanistic Psychology,
the first book on the subject. 1958 – Harry Harlow gave the speech The
Nature of Love, summarizing his isolation studies on infant monkeys and rejecting behavioristic
and psychoanalytic theories of attachment. 1958 – Joseph Wolpe published his theory
of reciprocal inhibition, leading to his theory of systematic desensitization for anxieties
and phobias. 1959 – Viktor Frankl published the first
English edition of Man’s Search for Meaning [with a preface by Gordon Allport], which
provided an existential account of his Holocaust experience and an overview of his system of
existential analysis called Logotherapy. 1959 – Noam Chomsky published his review
of B.F. Skinner’s Verbal Behavior, an event seen as by many as the start of the cognitive
revolution. 1959 – George Mandler and William Kessen
published The Language of Psychology. 1959 – Lawrence Kohlberg wrote his doctoral
dissertation, outlining Kohlberg’s stages of moral development.===1960s===
1960 – John L. Fuller and W. Robert Thompson published the seminal text Behavior Genetics.
1960 – Thomas Szasz inaugurated the anti-psychiatry movement with the publication of his book,
The Myth of Mental Illness. 1961 – Albert Bandura published the Bobo
doll experiment, a study of behavioral patterns of aggression.
1961 – Neal E. Miller proposed the use of biofeedback to control involuntary functions.
1962 – Wilfred Bion presented his unconventional theory of thinking.
1962 – Albert Ellis published Reason and Emotion In Psychotherapy, describing the theoretical
foundations of his therapeutic system known as Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.
1962 – George Armitage Miller published Psychology, the Science of Mental Life, rejecting
the idea that psychology should study only behavior.
1962 – Abraham Maslow published Toward a Psychology of Being, presenting his ideas
of self-actualization and the hierarchy of human needs.
1962 – Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer proposed the two-factor theory of emotion,
which considers emotion to be a function of both cognitive factors and physiological arousal;
“People search the immediate environment for emotionally relevant cues to label and interpret
unexplained physiological arousal.” 1962 – Silvan Tomkins published volume one
(of two) of Affect Imagery Consciousness, presenting his affect theory
1963 – Stanley Milgram published his study of obedience to authority, now known as the
Milgram experiment. 1964 – Jean M. Mandler and George Mandler
published Thinking: From Association to Gestalt. 1964 – Virginia Satir published Conjoint
Family Therapy, the first of several books on family therapy, causing her to become known
as the “Mother of Family Therapy” 1965 – Anna Freud published Normality and
Pathology in Childhood: Assessments of Development, presenting the concept of developmental lines.
1965 – William Glasser published Reality Therapy, describing his psycho-therapeutic
model and introducing his concept of control theory [later renamed to Choice Theory].
1965 – Donald Winnicott published The Maturational Process and the Facilitating Environment,
which became a main text in clinical psychodynamic developmental psychology.
1966 – Nancy Bayley became the first woman to receive the APA Distinguished Scientific
Contribution Award for her contribution in developmental psychology.
1966 – Konrad Lorenz published On Aggression, which discusses his hydraulic model of instinctive
pressures. 1966 – Masters and Johnson published Human
Sexual Response. 1966 – Julian Rotter published a paper proposing
the Internal-External Locus of Control Scale (I-E Scale).
1967 – Aaron Beck published a psychological model of clinical depression, suggesting that
thoughts play a significant role in the development and maintenance of depression.
1967 – Edward E. Jones and Victor Harris published a paper defining fundamental attribution
error, underestimating the effect of the situation in explaining social behavior.
1967 – Ulric Neisser founded cognitive psychology. 1968 – George Cotzias developed the L-Dopa
treatment for Parkinson’s disease. 1968 – Mary Main published her hypothesis
of a fourth attachment style in children, the insecure disorganized attachment style.
1968 – Walter Mischel published the paper “Personality and Assessment”, criticizing
Gordon Allport’s works on trait assessment with the observation that a patient’s behavior
is not consistent across diverse situations but dependent on situational cues.
1968 – DSM-II was published by the American Psychiatric Association.
1968 – The first Doctor of Psychology (Psy. D.) professional degree program in Clinical
Psychology was established in the Department of Psychology at the University of Illinois
at Urbana–Champaign. 1969 – The California School of Professional
Psychology was established as the first freestanding school of professional psychology.
1969 – The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology was founded by Abraham Maslow, Stanislav Grof,
and Anthony Sutich. 1969 – John Bowlby published his attachment
theory in the classic book Attachment and Loss (vol. 1 of 3).
1969 – Harry Harlow published his experiment on affection development in rhesus monkeys.
1969 – Joseph Wolpe published the Subjective Units of Distress (Disturbance) Scale (SUDS).
1969 – Elisabeth Kübler-Ross published On Death and Dying, presenting the Kübler-Ross
model, commonly referred to as the five stages of grief.
1969 – The Association for Women in Psychology (AWP) was founded, with Joann Evansgardner
as the first (temporary) president.===1970s===
1970 – At an APA Town Hall Meeting, with the support of the Association for Women in
Psychology, Phyllis Chesler and Nancy Henley prepared a statement on APA’s obligations
to women and demanded one million dollars in reparation for the damage psychology had
perpetrated against women’s minds and bodies. 1970 – Masters and Johnson published Human
Sexual Inadequacy. 1971 – The Stanford prison experiment, conducted
by Philip Zimbardo et al. at Stanford University, studied the human response to captivity; the
experiment quickly got out of hand and was ended early.
1971 – Martin Shubik performed the dollar auction, illustrating irrational choices.
1971 – In Nov. John O’Keefe and Jonathan O. Dostrovsky announced their discovery of
place cells in the hippocampus. 1971 – The Leibniz Institute for Psychology
Information at the University of Trier was founded to publish the PSYNDEX database of
references to psychology in the German-speaking world.
1972 – The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study commenced, a longitudinal
study began, with 96% retention rate as of 2006, unprecedented for a longitudinal study,
comparing to 20–40% dropout rates for other studies.
1972 – Robert E. Ornstein published The Psychology of Consciousness, about the use
of biofeedback et al. to shift mood and awareness. 1972 – Endel Tulving first made the distinction
between episodic and semantic memory. 1973 – Ernest Becker published The Denial
of Death, siding with Otto Rank against Sigmund Freud, claiming that knowledge of one’s mortality
not sexuality is the basis of character. 1973 – Morton Deutsch published The Resolution
of Conflict. 1973 – Vygotsky Circle neuropsychologist
Alexander Luria published The Working Brain, a detailed description with great emphasis
on rehabilitation of damage. 1973 – The Vail Conference of Graduate Educators
in Psychology endorsed the scholar-practitioner training model, and approved the Doctor of
Psychology (Psy. D) degree. 1973 – Division 35, later the Society for
the Psychology of Women of the APA, was formed, with Elizabeth Douvan as the first president.
1973 – The Committee on Women in Psychology of the APA was formed, with Martha Mednick
as its first chair. 1973 – The American Psychiatric Association
declassified homosexuality as a mental disorder. 1973 – The Caucus of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual
Members of the American Psychiatric Association was officially founded to advocate to the
APA on LGBT mental health issues; in 1985 it changed its name to the Association of
Gay and Lesbian Psychiatrists. 1973 – Nancy Friday published My Secret
Garden: Women’s Sexual Fantasies 1973 – Timothy Leary published Neurologic,
describing the eight-circuit model of consciousness. 1974 – Sandra Bem created the Bem Sex-Role
Inventory. 1974 – Robert Hinde published Biological
Bases of Human Social Behavior, a main text in etological-oriented developmental psychology.
1974 – Arnold Sameroff published Reproductive Risk and the Continuum of Caretaking Causality,
introducing the transactional model of psychology, which became influential.
1974 – Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch of the Univ. of York proposed Baddeley’s model
of working memory. 1974 – Elizabeth Loftus began publishing
papers on the malleability of human memory, the misinformation effect, and false memory
syndrome and its relation to recovered memory therapy.
1974 – The APA Task Force on Sex Bias and Sex-Role Stereotyping in Psychotherapeutic
Practice was appointed. 1975 – Georgia Babladelis became the first
editor of the Psychology of Women Quarterly. 1975 – George Mandler published Mind and
Emotion. 1975 – Mary Wright became the first chair
of the new Task Force on the Status of Women in Canadian Psychology.
1975 – Robert Zajonc published the confluence model, showing how birth order and family
size affect IQ. 1975 – The first APA-sponsored Psychology
of Women Conference was held. 1975 – The journal Sex Roles was founded.
1975 – The first review article on the psychology of women appeared in the women’s studies journal
Signs, by Mary Parlee. 1975 – The first article on the psychology
of women was published in the Annual Review of Psychology.
1975 – The council of representatives of the American Psychological Association (APA)
declassified homosexuality as a mental disorder. 1976 – Stanislav Grof founded the International
Transpersonal Association to promote his transpersonal psychology.
1976 – Julian Jaynes published The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral
Mind, which coins the term bicameral mind for the brain of humans who lived before about
1,000 B.C.E., whose right side “speaks” in the name of a chieftain or god, and whose
left side “listens” and takes orders. 1976 – Michael Posner published Chronometric
Explorations of Mind, using the subtractive method of Franciscus Donders to study attention
and memory. 1976 – The Psychology of Women Quarterly
was founded. 1977 – Ernest Hilgard proposed the divided
consciousness theory of hypnosis. 1977 – Alexander Thomas published Temperament
and Development, a longitudinal study on the importance of temperament for the development
of personality and behavioral problems. 1977 – Albert Bandura published the book
Social Learning Theory and an article on the concept of self-efficacy, A Unifying Theory
of Behavioral Change. 1977 – Susan Folstein and Michael Rutter
published a study of 21 British twins in Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry that reveals
a high genetic component in autism. 1977 – Robert Plomin et al. proposed three
major ways in which genes and environments act together to shape human behavior, coining
the terms passive, active, and evocative gene-environment correlation.
1977 – Andrey Lichko published Psychopathies and Accentuations of Character of Teenagers.
1978 – Child psychologist Mary Ainsworth published her book Patterns of Attachment
about her work on attachment theory and the Strange Situation Experiment (Protocol).
1978 – Paul Ekman published the Facial Action Coding System.
1978 – David Premack published the book Does the Chimpanzee Have a Theory of Mind?,
about his research on mental abilities of monkeys, introducing the term theory of mind.
1978 – The term cognitive neuroscience was coined by Michael Gazzaniga and George Armitage
Miller for the effort to understand how the brain represents mental events.
1978 – John O’Keefe and Lynn Nadel published The Hippocampus as a Cognitive Map.
1978 – E.O. Wilson published On Human Nature, considered the first landmark text to deal
with what would become evolutionary psychology. 1978 – The first Canadian Institute on Women
and Psychology pre-convention conference was hosted at the Canadian Psychological Association
by IGWAP (Interest Group on Women and Psychology). 1978 – The Caucus of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual
Members of the American Psychiatric Association, (now known as the Association of Gay and Lesbian
Psychiatrists) successfully petitioned the American Psychiatric Association (APA) to
create a task force on lesbian and gay issues; it was elevated to a full standing committee
in the APA in 1988. 1979 – Alice Miller published The Drama
of the Gifted Child, the first of a series of books criticizing Freud and Jung for blaming
the child for the sexual abuse of the parents, which she calls the “poisonous pedagogies”.
1979 – Urie Bronfenbrenner published The Ecology of Human Development, founding ecological
systems theory.===1980s===
1980 – Transgender people were officially classified by the American Psychiatric Association
as having “gender identity disorder.” 1980 – DSM-III was published by the American
Psychiatric Association (APA). 1980 – George Mandler published Recognizing:
The Judgment of Previous Occurrence, claiming a dual process basis of recognition, prior
occurrence and identification. 1980 – Robert Zajonc published the paper
“Feeling and Thinking: Preferences Need No Inferences”, arguing that affective and cognitive
systems are largely independent, and that affect is more powerful and important, reviving
the study of emotion and affective processes. 1981 – Alan P. Bell, Martin S. Weinberg,
and Sue Kiefer Hammersmith’s Sexual Preference is published. The work later becomes one of
the most frequently cited retrospective studies relating to sexual orientation.
1982 – Carol Gilligan published In a Different Voice, a work on feminist psychology.
1982 – The Caucus of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Members of the American Psychiatric Association
(APA) was recognized as a representative in the APA assembly, speaking directly on matters
of special concern to lesbian and gay members. 1983 – Howard Gardner published Frames of
Mind, introducing his theory of multiple intelligences. 1983 – The Caucus of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual
Members of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) successfully petitioned the APA to create
a task force on psychiatric aspects of AIDS, which ultimately led to the 1984 publication
of two important APA volumes Innovations in Psychotherapy with Homosexuals and Psychiatric
Implications of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
1983 – W. David Pierce et al. published a paper about activity-based anorexia.
1984 – Jerome Kagan published The Nature of the Child, a biological and socially oriented
description of the role of temperament in human development.
1984 – Peter Saville published the OPQ Pentagon questionnaire, a psychological personality
inventory measuring the five factor nodel. 1984 – Florence Denmark, Carolyn R. Payton,
and Laurie Eyde received the first American Psychological Association (APA) Committee
on Women in Psychology Leadership Awards. 1985 – Daniel Stern published The Interpersonal
World of the Infant, proposing an extensive mental life in early infancy.
1985 – Robert Sternberg proposed his triarchic theory of intelligence
1985 – Reuben Baron and David A. Kenny published the article The Moderator-Mediator Variable
Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations
in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology proposing a distinction of moderating in mediating
variables in psychological research. 1985 – Simon Baron-Cohen published Does
the Autistic Child Have a ‘Theory of Mind’? with Uta Frith and Alan Leslie, proposing
that children with autism show social and communication difficulties as a result of
a delay in the development of a theory of mind.
1985 – Costa & McRae published the NEO PI_R Five-Factor Personality Inventory, a 240-question
measure of the five factor model 1986 – Albert Bandura published Social Foundations
of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory.
1986 – David Rumelhart and James McClelland published Parallel Distributed Processing:
Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition. 1987 – Erik Erikson published The Life Cycle
Completed, expanding on Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development.
1987 – Roger Shepard published the universal law of generalization for psychological science.
1987 – The diagnostic category of “ego-dystonic homosexuality” was removed from the American
Psychiatric Association’s DSM with the publication of the DSM-III-R, though it still potentially
remains in the DSM-IV under the category of “sexual disorder not otherwise specified”
including “persistent and marked distress about one’s sexual orientation”.
1988 – Michael M. Merzenich et al. showed that sensory and motor maps in the cortex
can be modified with experience, a process called neural plasticity.
1988 – Claude Steele proposed the theory of self-affirmation.
1989 – Psychophysiologist Vladimir Rusalov published first activity-specific model of
temperament===1990s===
1990 – On May 17 the World Health Organization (WHO) declassified homosexuality as a mental
disorder, launching the International Day Against Homophobia and Transphobia.
1990 – Leonard Berkowitz published the cognitive neoassociation model of aggressive behavior
to cover the cases missed by the frustration-aggression hypothesis.
1991 – Steven Pinker proposed his theory on how children acquire language in Science,
later popularized in the book The Language Instinct.
1991 – The first issue of Feminism & Psychology was published.
1991- The American Psychoanalytic Association (APA) passed a resolution opposing “public
or private discrimination” against homosexuals. It stopped short, however, of agreeing to
open its training institutes to these individuals. 1992 – The American Psychoanalytic Association
(APA) extended the provisions of its 1991 resolution (see above) to training candidates
at its affiliated institutes. 1992 – Jaak Panksepp coined the term affective
neuroscience for the name of the field that studies neural mechanisms of emotion, and
in 1998 published the book Affective Neuroscience – The Foundations of Human and Animal Emotions
1992 – Sandra Scarr published Developmental Theories of the 1990s, proposing that genes
control experiences, and search and create environments.
1992 – Joseph LeDoux summarized and published his research on brain mechanisms of emotion
and emotional learning. 1992 – The American Psychological Association
(APA) selected behavioral genetics as one of two themes that best represented the past,
present, and future of psychology. 1994 – DSM-IV was published by the American
Psychiatric Association (APA). 1994 – Antonio Damasio published Descartes’
Error, presenting the somatic marker hypothesis (SMH) by which emotional processes can guide
(or bias) behavior, particularly decision-making. 1994 – Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles
Murray published The Bell Curve. 1994 – Michael Posner and Marcus Raichle
published Images of the Mind, using positron emission tomography (PET) to localize brain
cognitive functions. 1994 – Esther Thelen and Linda B. Smith
published A Dynamic Systems Approach to the Development of Cognition and Action, a book
on the use of developmental models based on dynamic systems.
1995 – Simon Baron-Cohen coined the term mental blindness to reflect the inability
of children with autism to properly represent the mental states of others.
1996 – Giacomo Rizzolatti published his discovery of mirror neurons.
1996 – Amos Tversky defined ambiguity aversion, the idea that people do not like ambiguous
choices, relating it to comparative ignorance. 1997 – The American Psychoanalytic Association
(APsaA) became the first U.S. national mental health organization to support same-sex marriage.
1998 – Martin Seligman established Positive Psychology as his main theme when he became
President of the American Psychological Association (APA).
1999 – George Botterill published The Philosophy of Psychology, about how modern cognitive
science challenges our common sense self-image.==
Twenty-first century=====2000s===
2000 – Alan Baddeley updated his model of working memory from 1974 to include the episodic
buffer as a third slave system alongside the phonological loop and the visuo-spatial sketchpad
2000 – Max Velmans published Understanding Consciousness, arguing for reflexive monism.
2002 – Avshalom Caspi et al. presented a study that was the first to provide epidemiological
evidence that a specific genotype moderates children’s sensitivity to environmental insults.
2002 – Steven Pinker published The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature,
arguing against tabula rasa models of the social sciences.
2002 – Daniel Kahneman won Nobel Prize 2007 – George Mandler published A History
of Modern Experimental Psychology===2010s===
2010 – The draft of DSM-5 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) was distributed
for comment and critique. 2010 – Simon LeVay published Gay, Straight,
and the Reason Why, which in 2012 received the Bullough Book Award for the most distinguished
book written for the professional sexological community published in a given year.
2012 – In 2009 America’s professional association of endocrinologists established best practices
for transgender children that included prescribing puberty-suppressing drugs to preteens followed
by hormone therapy beginning at about age 16, and in 2012 the American Academy of Child
and Adolescent Psychiatry echoed these recommendations. 2012 – The American Psychiatric Association
issued official position statements supporting the care and civil rights of transgender and
gender non-conforming individuals. 2013 – On 2 April U.S. President Barack
Obama announced the 10-year BRAIN Initiative to map the activity of every neuron in the
human brain. 2013 – DSM-5 was published by the American
Psychiatric Association (APA). Among other things, it eliminated the term “gender identity
disorder,” which was considered stigmatizing, instead referring to “gender dysphoria,” which
focuses attention only on those who feel distressed by their gender identity.
2014 – Stanislas Dehaene, Giacomo Rizzolatti, and Trevor Robbins, were awarded the Brain
Prize for their research on higher brain mechanisms underpinning literacy, numeracy, motivated
behaviour, social cognition, and their disorders. 2014 – Brenda Milner, Marcus Raichle, and
John O’Keefe received the Kavli Prize in Neuroscience for the discovery of specialized brain networks
for memory and cognition 2014 – John O’Keefe shared the Nobel Prize
in Physiology or Medicine with May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser for their discoveries of
cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain.
2015 – The journal Psychology Today announced that it will no longer accept ads for gay
conversion therapy, and is deleting medical practitioners who list such therapy in their
professional profiles.° 7 August 2015 – The American Psychological
Association barred psychologists from participating in national security interrogations at sites
violating international law. 27 August 2015 – A team led by Brian Nosek
of the University of Virginia published an article in Science that revealed that only
39 of 100 studies published in major psychology journals could be replicated

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